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No effects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the foetus have been demonstrated, but this technique is too expensive for routine observation.
Instead, obstetric ultrasonography is the imaging method of choice in the first trimester and throughout the pregnancy, because it emits no radiation, is portable, and allows for realtime imaging.
As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynaecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN) which is a surgical field. Most doctors do a sugar load in a drink form of 50 grams of glucose in cola, lime or orange and draw blood an hour later (plus or minus 5 minutes) ; the standard modified criteria have been lowered to 135 since the late 1980s Obstetric ultrasonography is routinely used for dating the gestational age of a pregnancy from the size of the fetus, determine the number of fetuses and placentae, evaluate for an ectopic pregnancy and first trimester bleeding, the most accurate dating being in first trimester before the growth of the foetus has been significantly influenced by other factors.
Genetic screening for Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and trisomy 18, the national standard in the United States, is rapidly evolving away from the AFP-Quad screen for Down syndrome, done typically in the second trimester at 16–18 weeks. Ultrasound is also used for detecting congenital anomalies (or other foetal anomalies) and determining the biophysical profiles (BPP), which are generally easier to detect in the second trimester when the foetal structures are larger and more developed.
Specialised ultrasound equipment can also evaluate the blood flow velocity in the umbilical cord, looking to detect a decrease/absence/reversal or diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery.
X-rays and computerized tomography (CT) are not used, especially in the first trimester, due to the ionizing radiation, which has teratogenic effects on the foetus.
Review guidelines for twin pregnancy obstetric care from Brigham and Womens Hospital.
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The presence of physicians and surgeons was very rare and only occurred once a serious complication had taken place and the midwife had exhausted all measures to manage the complication.Free Orthodox Dating Sites Ultrasound in the First Trimester and Earlier: Jehovahs Witnesses who date are ready, willing, and able to marry someone.Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. This is an evolving standard of care in the United States.The safety of frequent ultrasound scanning has not be confirmed.Despite this, increasing numbers of women are choosing to have additional scans for no medical purpose, such as gender scans, 3D and 4D scans.